Posted by: Xhyra Graf | 11 June 2010

Cosmoscope II

From Chalmers’ Locke Lectures, Oxford 2010:

Definitional Scrutability: All truths logically entailed by base truths and definitions.
Analytic Scrutability: All truths analytically entailed by base truths.
Primitive Scrutability: All truths a priori (analytically?) scrutable from truths involving primitive concepts.
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An expression is Twin-earthable if it is possible for someone to use it nondeferentially with one extension and for a twin to use a corresponding term with a different extension. An expression is narrow if it is non-Twin-earthable or a primitive indexical. [N.B. extensions of predicates and general terms are properties.]
Narrow Scrutability: All truths are a priori scrutable from narrow truths (those using only narrow expressions).
Narrowness of Scrutability: If sentence A is scrutable from set B for a speaker S, and A and B have counterparts A’ and B’ for a twin speaker S’, then A’ is scrutable from B.
Narrowness of Apriority: If a thought T constitutes a priori knowledge, and T has a counterpart T’ in a twin, then T’ constitutes a priori knowledge.
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An epistemically rigid expression is one that has the same extension in every epistemically possible scenario (and every possible world). Alternative: one whose extension can be known a priori.
An acquaintance expression is epistemically rigid or a primitive indexical.
Acquaintance Scrutability: All truths are scrutable from truths involving only acquaintance expressions.
Fundamental Scrutability: All truths are scrutable from metaphysically fundamental truths plus indexical truths.
Fundamental truths: must be epistemically rigid and necessitate all (epistemically rigid) truths.
Argument for Fundamental Scrutability:
1. All epistemically rigid truths are necessitated by (epistemically rigid) fundamental truths.
2. When S is epistemically rigid, S is necessary iff S is a priori.
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3. All epistemically rigid truths are a priori scrutable from fundamental truths.
4. All truths are a priori scrutable from epistemically rigid truths and indexical truths.
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5. All truths are a priori scrutable from fundamental truths and indexical truths.
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Structural Scrutability: All truths are scrutable from structural truths.
  • Strongly structural truths: logical expressions alone.
  • Weakly structural truths: logical expressions and (objective?) relation expressions.
Spatiotemporal Structuralism: All truths scrutable from spatiotemporal truths (plus indexical truths, and allowing logical/mathematical expressions).
Nomic Structuralism: All truths scrutable from nomic truths (plus…).
Phenomenal Structuralism: All truths scrutable from (structural) phenomenal truths (plus…).
Fundamentality Structuralism: All truths scrutable from truths about fundamentality (plus…)
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Chalmers Aufbau: The base contains logical, mathematical, and indexical expressions, plus phenomenal expressions, ‘law’, and ‘fundamental’.
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